In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued its long-awaited revision to lease accounting—Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-02, Leases (codiﬁed as FASB Accounting Standards Codiﬁcation (ASC) Topic 842) (the Standard). This Standard modiﬁes accounting for lessees and lessors and is effective for (a) public entities1 for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 (calendar periods beginning after January 1, 2019) and interim periods therein and (b) all other entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 (calendar periods beginning after January 1, 2020). Early adoption is permitted for all entities.2
While all leases will need to be considered under the Standard, there are signiﬁcant ramiﬁcations to leases involving real estate.
- Tenants (lessees) will be most impacted by the requirement to recognize liabilities and assets associated with leases on the balance sheet, including leases classiﬁed as operating leases. This likely will result in a balance sheet with dramatically higher assets and liabilities, particularly early in the lease term.
- Landlords (lessors) generally will maintain existing lease accounting guidance for the balance sheet, income statement and cash ﬂow statement. For the majority of landlords who currently account for leases as operating leases, the Standard will not change the current straight-line recognition of rental income over the lease term.
Both tenants and landlords will be impacted by changes to nonlease components, initial direct costs and required disclosures. All entities will have to revisit their existing accounting and control processes. Separation of nonlease components from lease components is typically not difficult for most real estate entities. However, the Standard will likely introduce some complexity.
Entities should begin the strategic planning necessary to meet these new challenges well before the effective date. Further, ﬁnancial statement users should be notiﬁed about how these changes to lease accounting will impact presentation of leverage and ratios. In particular, tenants will see higher noncurrent assets and higher current and noncurrent liability amounts on the balance sheet. This will lower some liquidity metrics (such as current ratio and quick ratio) and performance metrics (such as return on assets). Furthermore, by increasing overall liabilities, leverage metrics (such as debt ratio or debt-to-equity ratios) will appear higher.